There is no shortage of paintings featuring primates and many come to mind.
They tell us about our history. The painting below by Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) depicts Prince Edward of Wales with a monkey. The monkey is not represented realistically. It has a striped tail, similar to that of ring-tailed lemurs and ears we often see in mythical creatures found in Gothic art, possibly ears of a dragon. It was customary for foreign dignitaries to offer exotic animals to European royalty, so it is possible that the prince possessed a monkey at one time. In his book "Henry VIII: the king, his six wives and his court", Nick Ford specifies that the monkey the prince is holding is a guenon "which signifies wealth and exotic taste".
Kuntsmuseum collection, Basel, Switzerland
Oil on wood - London National Gallery, UK
Monkeys and great apes were later represented to point out the arrogance of humans, especially artists and maybe also to remind us that we are not as noble as we think we are. This is what Decamps (1803-1860) probably meant to do in Le Peintre Singe (The Monkey Painter).
Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
In more recent times, primates were also depicted as companions, such as in the two self portraits of Frieda Kahlo (1907-1954) and her pet monkey (who seems to have been a spider monkey).
1938 - self-portrait with a monkey - Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Self-portrait with Bonito and a parrot - Private collection, USA